# Quantum Computing for Complex Problem Solving

We live in the era of computers. Today we use computers almost in every field and we are so much dependent on them. It is even impossible to imagine research, space exploration, or technical advancement without computers. We have not only reduced its size considerably over the past centuries but also increases its computing capacity to a great extent. For example, our mobile phones are much smaller and faster than the military computers that were used 50 years ago which were as huge as the size of the room. Despite all, our modern computers are not adequately perfect in many aspects. The most common limitation of these computers is their speed as they spend enough time-solving Complex Mathematical Equations. Their other but important drawbacks are high consumption of energy or power and limited storage capacity.

So, we need such computers that are many times better and faster than the computers of this generation in every field. Companies like Google, Intel, or IBM are investing their money and time to build a computer by using the principles of quantum physics. These computers are called Quantum computers. The working model of such computers has been architected as well as they have been successfully tested by using them in solving some simple equations. Now, these companies are giving their efforts to make such computers on a large scale with high efficiency.

**Quantum computer:**

Quantum computers are computers that use quantum theories to perform computation.

A normal computer that we use very often such as desktop, laptop, tablet, smartphones, etc. is also known as a binary computer because it’s all functionalities are based on two numbers i.e., 0 or 1. A binary computer performs computation with the help of a processor that uses a transistor. Every transistor can have only two possible states either it is on or it is off. Here 0 represents off state and 1 represents on the state. what to compute in the next step of an algorithm or a program is solely decided by 0 or 1 and these numbers are called bits. But in the case of quantum computers, we use qubits or quantum bits instead of bits.

Here a general question arises that what are qubits?

So, let’s know about this.

In bits, there are only two states i.e.,0 or one but in qubits, we have three states i.e., 0 or 1 or 0 or 1 in a combined state. Since in quantum computers, qubits are used which provides the programmer a benefit over a binary computer to check many algorithms at a time which increases the computation speed by many times.

These qubits exist in all possible states before it is observed which is called spinning state. We measure these states in three criteria namely up, down, or both. These qubits perform their function based on a quantum phenomenon called superposition state. These qubits affect each other by a phenomenon called Quantum Entanglement even when they are not physically connected.

**Superposition Phenomenon:**

Quantum particles behave differently when they are observed and differently when they are not observed. The double Slit experiment proves this phenomenon. This experiment describes that these quantum particles are not in particle state or waveform originally, but they exist in their every possible state in the form of wave functions or say in the form of probabilities so, when we observe them, their wave functions get collapsed and we get one state among their every possible state.

**How does Quantum Computer work?**

Quantum computer simulates the superposition nature of quantum particles present in its surrounding by using their qubits through which their speed and efficiency get increased considerably.

How is it done? Let’s understand it by example.

If we flip a coin, it gives us either head or tail and our binary computers are in analogy with this situation where we have either 0 or 1. That’s why to solve such cases our binary computers take more time in which there are equal chances to get many answers because they check every possibility one by one at a time. But quantum computers work differently. While our coin it is impossible to predict the results. In reality, the coin is in both states during spinning according to the superposition state. Qubits act exactly like this and they can check many possibilities at a time and thus they are much faster than binary computers.

**Challenges to make it operational:**

The speed and power of quantum computers attract many companies towards them but to work with these computers is not an easy task. Here are some challenges with Quantum Computers:

1.After observation, Qubit’s state gets changed. So, it is very difficult to massage their functions.

2.If large numbers of qubits are used, they would produce a lot of noise which can be unbearable, and also the chance of errors gets increased with the increment of qubits.

3.Quantum computers are needed to install at a near temperature of 0k which is as cool as the temperature of space which is quite difficult to maintain and work in that surrounding.

4.There is a threat to our security system due to its efficiency because quantum computers can easily hack these binary computers in no time. In the future, we need a quantum-based cryptographic system to eliminate this risk but unfortunately, it is not invented yet.

So, these are the challenges before many tech companies to make operational.

**Conclusion:**

Quantum computation has now become one of the most important inventions of this era. Many tech companies are trying their best to achieve quantum supremacy. Three years ago, IBM invented a quantum processor that used 50 qubits but after one year in 2018, google created a processor using 72 qubits and achieved Quantum Supremacy. Before that Google created a quantum computer having 53 qubits named “Sycamore” which did a task in 200 seconds that would have taken 10,000 years to complete.

These Computers can bring a revolutionary change to mankind and make their lives much easier. We will get answers to complex equations in seconds which is not possible in classical computers. In July 2016, Google’s researchers simulated Hydrogen molecule with the help of quantum computation for the very first time. After that many complex molecules has been simulated by many companies such as IBM etc.

If we will be able to make more efficient quantum computers then many more complex molecules will be found which can be used for medicinal purposes, space exploration, discoveries or even to develop advanced Artificial Intelligence technologies.

So, In the field of technology, Quantum computing will be a big name in the upcoming years, and it can leave behind all the classic computers with its speed and efficiency.

We live in the era of computers. Today we use computers almost in every field and we are so much dependent on them. It is even impossible to imagine research, space exploration, or technical advancement without computers. We have not only reduced its size considerably over the past centuries but also increases its computing capacity to a great extent. For example, our mobile phones are much smaller and faster than the military computers that were used 50 years ago which were as huge as the size of the room. Despite all, our modern computers are not adequately perfect in many aspects. The most common limitation of these computers is their speed as they spend enough time-solving Complex Mathematical Equations. Their other but important drawbacks are high consumption of energy or power and limited storage capacity.

So, we need such computers that are many times better and faster than the computers of this generation in every field. Companies like Google, Intel, or IBM are investing their money and time to build a computer by using the principles of quantum physics. These computers are called Quantum computers. The working model of such computers has been architected as well as they have been successfully tested by using them in solving some simple equations. Now, these companies are giving their efforts to make such computers on a large scale with high efficiency